Revised on
01/27/17 01:50pm

Office Risk Solutions

The following are descriptions and solutions for completing the Office Risk Report. You may find more information on equipment on the Ergonomic Product Catalog.

 

Wrist Risk Descriptions & Solutions

Task

Summary

Administrative Solutions

Equipment Solutions

Palms Down

image palms down

The palm of the hand rotated downward at an angle greater than 55° from vertical for longer than 1 min.
 
 
 
Wrist issues occur when palms are rotated downwards twisting soft tissues in the forearm and placing strain on the wrist.
 
 
 
Examples: Typing on a flat keyboard, using a standard mouse input, writing documents.
 

 

 

      1.) Take micro-break (1-2 min) every hour

      2.) Reduce typing force

      3.) Conduct hand stretches

          1.) Evoluent Vertical Mouse

          2.) Kinesis Freestyle Keyboard

          3.) Das Mechanical Keyboard

          Contact Stress

          image write contact stress

          Contact wrist stress with a non-plush surface for longer than 10 sec

          Contact stress places pressure on the soft tissues of the wrist; restricting blood flow and causing soft tissue damage to the upper extremities

          Examples: Resting palms while typing or using the mouse, planting the hand and using the wrist to move the mouse, leaning on the table when tired.

          1.) Retract Keyboard Feet

          2.) Float Hands while Typing

          3.) Sit back in the Chair

          4.) Cover sharp edges with soft material

          1.) Raise chair and order footrest

          2.) Logitech K750

          3.) Lower Table to elbow height

          4.) Palm supports

          Awkward Posture

          image wrist awkward posture

          Any activity which results in the wrist angle being greater than 20° in any direction (upwards, downwards, inwards, outwards) or any combination of directions.

          Wrist deviations places stress on the nerves in the wrist and prolonged awkward postures can reduce muscle strength and increase fatigue.

          Examples: Wrist deviations while typing, planting wrists on table to use the keyboard or mouse, negative or positive tilt to working surface.

          1.) Retract keyboard feet

          2.) Maintain neutral posture

          3.) Move mouse from the shoulder

          4.) Increase mouse sensitivity

          1.) Evoluent Vertical Mouse

          2.) Kensington Track Ball

          3.) Kinesis Freestyle2

          4.) Contour Re:D Mouse

          Duration

          image duration 3hr

          Working continuous on the computer for 3 hours without taking at least 15 min break (total time) will increase the onset of muscle fatigue.

          Continuous means a time frame where a person is seated and performing computing or desk related task without major posture variations (standing, walking, and resting) or task variation throughout a normal workday.

          Examples: Data Entry, Web Browsing, Word Processing, Administrative Tasks, Data Management, Email Communication etc.

          1.) Take micro-break (1-2 min) every hour

          2.) Change job task every two hours

          3.) 15 min stretch every three hours

          1.) CtrlWorks Break Software

          2.) Dragon Speaking Software

           

           

          Elbow Risk Descriptions & Solutions

          Task

          Summary

          Administrative Solutions

          Equipment Solutions

          Over Gripping

          image elbow over gripping

          Any grip or pinch hold that exceeds a weight of 2 lbs or is executed more than 3 times a min. In addition, any grip that larger or smaller than an individual’s palm size by 15% by surface area.
           
           
           
           
          Gripping any object that is too large or small for an individual’s hand can force a person to grab on the object too tightly and thereby increase strain on the forearm and elbow.
           
           
           
           
          Examples: Mouse size is too large or small, filing documents, lifting heavy objects or repeatedly, excessive writing or pen use.

              1.) Avoid high force pinch grip

              2.) Relax hand while grabbing the mouse

              3.) Take micro-break (1-2 min) every hour

              4.) Switch hands to reduce strain

                  1.) Find a proper size mouse

                  2.) Contour Re:D Mouse

                  3.) Kensington Trackball Mouse

                  Awkward Posture

                  elbow awkward posture

                  Any activity which results in the wrist angle being greater than 20° in any direction (upwards, downwards, inwards, outwards) or any combination of directions.

                  Wrist deviations places stress on the nerves in the wrist & elbows and prolonged awkward postures can  reduce muscle strength and increase fatigue.

                  Examples: Wrist deviations while typing, planting wrists on table to use the keyboard or mouse, negative or positive tilt to working surface.

                  1.) Retract keyboard feet

                  2.) Float hands while typing

                  3.) Sit back in the chair

                  4.) Maintain neutral posture

                  5.) Take micro-break (1-2 min) every hour

                  1.) Raise or lower table to  elbow height

                  2.) Adjustable height table

                  3.) Obtain armrests; if needed

                  4.) Raise chair and obtain a footrest

                  Contact Stress

                  elbow contact stress

                  Contact elbow stress with a non-plush surface for longer than 10 sec.

                  Contact stress places pressure on the soft tissues of the elbow; restricting blood flow and causing soft tissue damage to the upper extremities.

                  Examples: Resting elbows on table while typing or using the mouse, resting head on hand when fatigued, arm rests are set too high or far back from neutral posture.

                  1.) Ensure armrests are just below the elbows

                  2.) Relax shoulders and have input devices at elbow height

                  3.) Avoid resting your head on your hand

                  1.) Raise or lower table to elbow height

                  2.) Elbows supports if resting on table

                   

                  High Frequency

                  High Frequency

                  Repetition of poor ergonomic habits will increase in the development of repetitive motion injuries.

                  Frequency means any combination of the activities listed above more than three times per minute. Remember, that this is an average, so if a person conducts these activities for only a portion of the work day, it still counts towards the average of 3 times per minute.

                  Examples: Mouse to keyboard movement, Resting to working mode, Poor biomechanical posture when using computer equipment. Tasks, Data Management, Email Communication etc.

                  1.) Take Short Breaks Every Hour

                  2.) Job Rotation Every Two Hours

                  3.) 15 min Stretch Break Every Three Hours

                  1.) CtrlWorks Break Software

                  2.) Dragon Speaking Software

                   

                   

                  Shoulder Risk Descriptions & Solutions

                  Task

                  Summary

                  Administrative Solutions

                  Equipment Solutions

                  Over Reaching

                  shoulder overreaching

                  Any upper arm rotation greater than 40° inward/outward or 20° upward/downward
                   
                   
                   
                  Reaching for often used materials (mouse, book, and phone) takes the body out of a healthy, supported posture and can lead to shoulder strain.
                   
                   
                  Examples: Reaching above your shoulder or below your elbow, placing mouse or phone far away from your dominant arm’s shoulder.
                   

                   

                   

                      1.) Place input device beside keyboard

                      2.) Prioritize Items within Arm's Reach

                      3.) Increase Mouse Sensitivity

                      4.) Increase Mouse Space

                          1.) Adesso Mini Keyboard

                          2.) Contour Re:D Mouse

                          3.) 3M Document Holder

                          Shoulder Shrugging

                          Shoulder shrugging

                          Contact wrist stress with a non-plush surface for longer than 10 sec

                          Contact stress places pressure on the soft tissues of the wrist; restricting blood flow and causing soft tissue damage to the upper extremities

                          Examples: Resting palms while typing or using the mouse, planting the hand and using the wrist to move the mouse, leaning on the table when tired.

                          1.) Take Mirco-Break (1-2 min) every hour.

                          2.) Reorganize Work Space

                          3.) Adjust armrests to support elbow

                          4.) Provide elbow support or armrest

                          1.) Raise or Lower Table to Resting Elbow Height

                          2.) Adjustable Height Workstation

                          3.) Raise Chair and Obtain a Footrest

                           

                          Unsupported Arms

                          Shoulder unsupported arms

                          Any posture where forearms are not supported or relaxed from their resting position for more than 50% of the time.

                          An unsupported arm forces the shoulder muscles to support arm weight increasing fatigue and stress in the shoulder muscles.

                          Examples: Floating over work surface, table is too low or high, no armrest or relaxed posture is seen.

                          1.) Ensure armrests are located under the elbows

                          2.) Relax shoulders and have input devices

                          3.) Lower or Raise Chair to allow your feet to rest on the floor

                          4.) Ensure that the chair is proper width, if not schedule a chair fitting

                          5.) Provide elbow support or armrest

                          1.) Raise or Lower Table to Resting Elbow Height

                          2.) Adjustable Height Workstation

                          High Frequency

                          High Frequency

                          Repetition of poor ergonomic habits will increase in the development of repetitive motion injuries.

                          Frequency means any combination of the activities listed above more than three times per minute. Remember, that this is an average, so if a person conducts these activities for only a portion of the work day, it still counts towards the average of 3 times per minute.

                          Examples: Mouse to Keyboard Movement, Resting to Working Mode, Poor biomechanical posture when using computer equipment. Tasks, Data Management, Email Communication etc.

                          1.) Take micro-break (1-2 min) every hour

                          2.) Change job task every two hours

                          3.) 15 min stretch every three hours

                          1.) CtrlWorks Break Software

                          2.) Dragon Speaking Software

                           

                           

                          Back Risk Descriptions & Solutions

                          Task

                          Summary

                          Administrative Solutions

                          Equipment Solutions

                          No Lumbar Support

                          Shoulder unsupported arms

                          Seated posture that either has no lumbar contact or more than 2 inches of space between the back of the knee and the edge of the seat pan for greater than 50% of total seated time.
                           
                           
                           
                          Posture that loses contact with the lumbar spine causes the lower back muscles to fatigue and increases the pressure placed on the spine.
                           
                           
                           
                           
                          Examples: Seat pan too long, chair is too large, non-ergonomic chair, monitor is too far, seated too high.

                              1.) Sit back in the chair to have contact with the lumbar support

                              2.) Adjust seat pan for a two finger gap between the edge and the back of the knee

                              3.) Position monitor within arm's reach

                              4.) Increase font size to allow for relaxed seating

                                  1.) Ergonomic Chair Fitting

                                  2.) Lumbar pillow placed at the gap of the lumbar area

                                  Awkward Posture

                                  back awkward position

                                  Seated posture which results in the back angle being greater than 15° in any direction (forwards, backwards, sideways, twist) or any combination of directions.

                                  Posture that changes the lumbar spine from neutral posture will result in an increase in strain on the spinal column.

                                  Examples: Monitor is too far, close, high or low, multitasking tasks on different surfaces, poor chair comfort, fatigue.

                                  1.) Ensure feet are in contact with the floor

                                  2.) Raise or lower monitor so eye line is aligned with the top of the monitor

                                  3.) Increase font size to allow for relaxed seating

                                  4.) Sit back in the chair and have contact in the lower back

                                  1.) Ergonomic Chair Fitting

                                  2.) If monitor is too low: Obtain a Monitor Riser

                                  Slouched Seating or Unsupported Arms

                                  slouched seating

                                  Any posture where shoulders are not supported or relaxed from their rested position for more than 50% of the time. In addition, posture where there no lumbar or thoracic spine support is seen.

                                  An unsupported arm forces the lower back muscles to support arm weight increasing fatigue and stress in the lower back muscles. Slouching causes a change in the shape of spine, compromising its integrity and increasing muscle fatigue.

                                  Examples: Floating over work surface, table is too low, no armrest or relaxed posture is seen, and monitor is too high or low, fatigue.

                                  1.) Ensure feet are in contact with the floor

                                  2.) Raise or lower monitor so eye line is aligned with the top of the monitor

                                  3.) Increase font size to allow for relaxed seating

                                  4.) Sit back in the chair and have contact in the lower back

                                  5.) Ensure armrests are located under the elbows

                                  6.) Relax shoulders and have input devices at elbow height

                                  1.) Ergonomic Chair Fitting

                                  2.) Raise or lower table to resting elbow height

                                  3.) Obtain armrests; if needed

                                  Duration

                                  image duration 3hr

                                  Working continuous on the computer for 3 hours without taking at least 15 min break (total time) will increase the onset of muscle fatigue.

                                  Continuous means a time frame where a person is seated and performing computing or desk related task without major posture variations (standing, walking, and resting) or task variation throughout a normal workday.

                                  Examples: Data Entry, Web Browsing, Word Processing, Administrative Tasks, Data Management, Email Communication etc.

                                  1.) Take micro-break (1-2 min) every hour

                                  2.) Change job task every two hours

                                  3.) 15 min stretch every three hours

                                  1.) CtrlWorks Break Software

                                   

                                  Neck Risk Descriptions & Solutions

                                  Task

                                  Summary

                                  Administrative Solutions

                                  Equipment Solutions

                                  Awkward Neck Posture

                                  Neck awkaward position

                                  Any activity which results in the neck angle being greater than 20° in any direction (upwards, downwards, sideways) or any combination of direction.
                                   
                                   
                                   
                                  Awkward neck posture places stress on the muscles in the neck.
                                   
                                   
                                   
                                  Examples: Monitor is too high, low, off-center, far or close to user, vision problems or glasses are need, multiple monitors used, non-touch typist, documents are viewed on the desk.

                                      1.) If you are a hunt and peck typist, consider learning touch typing.

                                      2.) Raise or lower monitor so eye line is aligned with the top of the monitor

                                      3.) Align monitors or documents directly in front of you

                                          1.) 3M Document Holder

                                          2.) If monitor is too low: Obtain a  monitor or laptop riser

                                          3.) If activities are dynamic: monitor arm

                                          Unsupported Arms or Phone Cradling

                                          Neck upsupported arms/phone cradling

                                          Any posture where shoulders are not support or relaxed from their rested position for more than 50% of the time. In addition, an activity that causes the neck to hold a static tilt posture for longer than 2 min.

                                          An unsupported arm forces the neck muscles to support arm weight increasing fatigue and stress in the neck muscles. Prolonged neck tilt causes strain the passive tissues in the neck.

                                          Examples: Floating over work surface, table is too low, no armrest or relaxed posture is seen, phone usage without a headset.

                                          1.) Position phone to eliminate reaching across the body

                                          2.) Ensure armrests are located directly under the elbow

                                          3.) Relax shoulders and have input devices at elbow height

                                          4.) Sit back in the chair and have contact in the lower back

                                          1.) Obtain a phone headset: Plantronics CS50

                                          2.) Raise or lower table to resting elbow height

                                          3.) Obtain armrests; if needed

                                          Static Posture

                                          neck static posture

                                          Neck angle greater than 20° held for longer than 5 min.

                                          Prolonged awkward neck postures can reduce muscle strength and increase fatigue.

                                          Examples: Monitor is too high, low, off-center, far or close to user, vision problems or glasses are need, multiple monitors used.

                                          1.) Align monitors (main monitor) directly in front of you

                                          2.) Raise or lower monitor so eye line is aligned with the top of the monitor

                                          3.) 20-20-20 Rule (Take a break)

                                          1.) If monitor is too low:Obtain monitor or laptop riser

                                          High Frequency

                                          High Frequency

                                          Repetition of poor ergonomic habits will increase in the development of repetitive motion injuries.

                                          Frequency means any combination of the activities listed above more than three times per minute. Remember, that this is an average, so if a person conducts these activities for only a portion of the work day, it still counts towards the average of 3 times per minute.

                                          Examples: Mouse to Keyboard Movement, Resting to Working Mode, Poor biomechanical posture when using computer equipment. Tasks, Data Management, Email Communication etc

                                          1.) Take Short Breaks Every Hour

                                          2.) Job Rotation Every Two Hours

                                          3.) 15 min Stretch Break Every Three Hours

                                          1.) CtrlWorks Break Software

                                           

                                           

                                          Legs Risk Descriptions & Solutions

                                          Task

                                          Summary

                                          Administrative Solutions

                                          Equipment Solutions

                                          Sitting Too High, Feet on Casters

                                          legs sitting too high

                                          Knee to foot angle less than 85° or a hip to knee angle greater than 110°.
                                           
                                           
                                           
                                          Having too open of a sitting posture or too close of a leg posture will place more pressure on the lower extremities and reduce blood flow.
                                           
                                           
                                           
                                           
                                          Examples: Sitting too high, No foot platform, Non-ergonomic chair, chair is not set up correctly.

                                              1.) Lower or raise chair to allow your feet to rest on the floor

                                              2.) Adjust seat pan for a two finger gap between the edge and the back of the knee

                                              3.) Sit back in the chair and have contact in the lower back

                                                  1.) Raise or lower table to resting elbow height

                                                  2.) Obtain a Foot Rest

                                                  Duration

                                                  image duration 3hr

                                                  Working continuous on the computer for a 3hrs without taking at least 15 min break (total time) will increase the onset of muscle fatigue.

                                                  Continuous means a time frame where a person is seated and performing computing or desk related task without major posture variations (standing, walking, and resting) or task variation throughout a normal workday.

                                                  Examples: Data Entry, Web Browsing, Word Processing, Administrative Tasks, Data Management, Email Communication etc.

                                                  1.) Take micro-break (1-2 min) every hour

                                                  2.) Change job task every two hours

                                                  3.) 15 min stretch every three hours

                                                  1.) CrtWorks Break Software

                                                   

                                                  Static Posture

                                                  legs static posture

                                                  Any posture where legs are not supported by a solid surface or kneeling or crouching is observed in the work task.

                                                  Unsupported legs, kneeling and crouching forces the thigh muscles to support increased load which can increase fatigue and stress in the leg muscles.

                                                  Examples: Sitting too high or low, kneeling to pick up boxes or objects, kneeling chairs.

                                                  1.) Raise or lower table to resting elbow height

                                                  2.) Sit back in the chair and have contact in the lower back

                                                  1.) Raise or lower table to resting elbow height

                                                  2.) Obtain a Foot Rest

                                                  Contact Stress

                                                  legs contact stress

                                                  Contact leg stress with either the table/ keyboard tray or seat pan edge for longer than 10 sec.

                                                  Contact stress places pressure on the soft tissues of the leg; restricting blood flow and causing soft tissue damage to the lower extremities.

                                                  Examples: Seat pan is too long, chair is too high, table is too low

                                                  1.) Lower or raise chair to allow your feet to rest floor

                                                  2.) Adjust seat pan to only allow two fingers gap between the edge and the back of the knee

                                                  3.) Sit back in the chair and have contact in the lower back

                                                  1.) Ergonomic Chair Fitting

                                                  2.) Raise or lower table to resting elbow height