Revised on
09/13/16 11:57am

List of Formularies

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Rabbit Formulary

 

  DOSE ROUTE FREQUENCY REFERENCE NOTES
           
PREMEDICATION          
Atropine 0.1-0.5 mg/kg SC, IM   44  
Glycopyrolate 0.01-0.1 mg/kg
0.01mg/kg
SC, IM
IV
  40
40
 
Acepromazine 0.1-1 mg/kg SC   40 as an adjunct to anesthesia
Diazepam 2-10 mg/kg IM   40 as an adjunct to anesthesia
           
ANESTHETICS          
Ketamine 20-60 mg/kg IM, IV   40  
Ketamine/Xylazine 35/5 mg/kg IM, SC   41, 44a  
Ketamine/Dexmedetomidine 25/0.1 mg/kg IM      
Ketamine/Butorphanol/Xylazine 35/0.1/5 mg/kg IM   41  
Telazol 10-25 mg/kg IM   41 possible nephrotoxicity
Propofol 7.5-15 mg/kg IV   39 restraint only at low dose
Isoflurane, Halothane To effect Inhalation      
           
OPIOIDS          
Morphine 2-5 mg/kg SC, IM q. 2-4 hrs 4,13,16, 39  
Buprenorphine 0.01-0.05  SC, IM, IV q. 6-12 hrs 13, 39  
Butorphanol 0.1-0.5 mg/kg IV q. 4 hrs 13, 39  
           
NON-OPIOIDS          
Flunixin 1.1 mg/kg SC, IM q. 12 hrs  13, 39  
Ibuprofen 10-20 mg/kg IV q. 4 hrs  13, 41  
Ketoprofen 1-3 mg/kg IM 12-24 hrs  32, 35  
Carprofen 5 mg/kg SC, PO q. 24 hrs 39  
Meloxicam 0.3-0.6 mg/kg SC, PO  q. 24 hrs 39  
           
ANESTHETIC ANTAGONIST          
Naloxone 0.01-0.1 SC, IM, IV   41 reverses opioids
Nalbuphine 1 mg/kg IP, SC   41 partial reversal of opioids
  1-2 mg/kg IV q. 4-5 hrs 41 partial reversal of opioids
Yohimbine 0.2 mg/kg IV   41 reverses xylazine
Atipamezole 0.2 mg/kg
1 mg/kg
IV
SC, IV
  41
41
reverses dexmedetomidine
reverses dexmedetomidine

Dog Formulary

  DOSE ROUTE FREQUENCY REFERENCE NOTES
           
PREMEDICATION          
Atropine 0.02-0.04 mg/kg SC, IM, IV   40  
Glycopyrolate 0.011 mg/kg IM, SC, IV   40  
Acepromazine 0.03-0.2 mg/kg SC, IM, IV max of 3 mg 40 as an adjunct to anesthesia
Diazepam 0.3-0.5 mg/kg IV   42 immediately prior to ketamine
           
ANESTHETICS          
Ketamine/Diazepam 10/0.5 mg/kg IV   42 induction and chemical restraint
Telazol 6.6-9.9 mg/kg IM   40  
Propofol 5.5 mg/kg IV slowly   40 <5 sec administration → apnea
Thiopental 13.2-26.4 mg/kg IV   40 dose depends on desired duration
Isoflurane To effect Inhalation      
           
OPIOIDS          
Morphine 0.5-2.2 mg/kg SC, IM q. 4-6 hrs 40  
Fentanyl patch see reference for size Transdermal   40 apply 12-24 hours before surgery
Methadone 0.5-1.0 mg/kg IV, IM, SC q. 6-8 hrs 40  
Buprenorphine 0.01-0.02 mg/kg  SC, IM, IV q. 6-12hrs 40  
Butorphanol 0.1-0.5 mg/kg SC, IM, IV q. 2-4 hrs 40 analgesia lasts less than 1 hr
Oxymorphone 0.1-0.2 mg/kg SC, IM, IV q. 1-3 hrs 40  
           
NON-OPIOIDS          
Dexmedetomidine 2.5-5 ug/kg IM   43  
Carprofen 4.4 mg/kg PO, SC q. 24hrs 40  
Aspirin 10 mg/kg PO q. 12 hrs 40  
Meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg on day 1
0.1 mg/kg on day 2
PO, IV, SC
PO, IV, SC
q. 24hrs
q. 24 hrs
40
40
 
           
ANESTHETIC ANTAGONIST          
Naloxone 0.01-0.04 mg/kg SC, IM, IV   40 reverses opioids
Nalbuphine 0.01 mg/kg increments to 0.1 mg/kg IV   43 partial reversal of opioids
Yohimbine 0.11 mg/kg IV   40 reverses xylazine
Atipamezole 0.2 mg/kg IV, IM   40 reverses dexmedetomidine

 

Cat Formulary

  DOSE ROUTE FREQUENCY REFERENCE NOTES
           
PRE-ANESTHETIC          
Butorphanol 0.2-0.4 mg/kg IM, SC   40  
Acepromazine 0.05-0.1 mg/kg IM, SC   40  
           
INDUCTION          
Propofol 1-6 mg/kg IV   40  
Ketamine 5 mg/kg IV   40  
Valium 0.05-0.2 mg/kg IV      
           
ANESTHESIA          
Dexmedetomidine/Ketamine/Butorphanol 0.035-0.065 ml/kg     40 mix 1mg of 0.5 mg/ml dexmedetomidine, 1 ml of 100 mg/ml ketamine and 1 ml 10 mg/ml butorphanol
Reverse with Atipamazole at 0.012-0.021 ml/kg
Isoflorane 0.05-3% Inhalation   40  
           
ANALGESIA          
Buprenorphine 0.01-0.03 mg/kg IM, SC BID-TID 40  
Butorphanol 0.1-0.5 mg/kg IM, SC 4-5x day 40  
Carprofen 1-2 mg/kg SC SID-BID 40  
Meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg on day 1
0.1 mg/kg day 2
SC, PO
 
 

 

Guinea Pig Formulary

  DOSE ROUTE FREQUENCY REFERENCE NOTES
           
PREMEDICATION          
Atropine 0.05-0.2 mg/kg SC, IM   36  
Glycopyrolate 0.01-0.02 mg/kg SC      
Acepromazine 0.5-5 mg/kg SC, IM, IV   36 as an adjunct to anesthesia
Diazepam 2-5 mg/kg SC, IP     as an adjunct to anesthesia
Midazolam 2-5 mg/kg SC, IP      
           
ANESTHETICS          
Ketamine 20-50 mg/kg IM   36  
Ketamine/Xylazine 87/13mg/kg
75/7.5mg/kg
SC, IP
SC, IP
  39
36
useful for longer procedures
Ketamine/Medetomidine 40/0.5 mg/kg SC, IP   36  
Telazol 40-60 mg/kg IM   36  
  10-80 mg/kg IP      
Fentanyl 0.032 mg/kg IM   36 given 20 minutes after diazepam
Isoflurane, Halothane To effect Inhalation      
           
OPIOIDS          
Morphine 2-5 mg/kg SC, IM q. 4 hrs 13  
Meperidine 10-20 mg/kg SC, IM q. 2-3 hrs 13  
Buprenorphine 0.05 mg/kg  SC q. 8-12 hrs 13, 51  
Butorphanol 1-2 mg/kg SC q. 4 hrs 51  
Oxymorphone 0.2-0.5 mg/kg SC   51  
           
NON-OPIOIDS          
Aspirin 86 mg/kg PO q. 4 hrs (?) 13 ototoxic@50mg/kg
Xylazine 3-5mg/kg SC, IP   36 cause sedation
Medetomidine 0.3-0.5 mg/kg SC   36 cause sedation
Carprofen 4 mg/kg SC 12-24 hrs 51  
Flunixin meglumine 2.5 mg/kg SC   51  
Ketoprofen 1 mg/kg SC 12-24 hrs 51  
Meloxicam 0.1-0.3 mg/kg SC, PO 24 hrs 51  
           
ANESTHETIC ANTAGONIST          
Naloxone 0.01-0.1 mg/kg SC, IP, IV     reverses opioids
Yohimbine 0.1-0.15 mg/kg IV     reverses xylazine
Atipamezole 1 mg/kg IV    

reverses medetomidine

Rat Formulary

  DOSE ROUTE FREQUENCY REFERENCE NOTES
           
PREMEDICATION          
Atropine 0.05-1 mg/kg SC   45  
Glycopyrolate 0.01-0.02 mg/kg SC, IM   45, 41  
Acepromazine 0.5-1 mg/kg IM   45  
           
ANESTHETICS          
Ketamine 25-40 mg/kg
100 mg/kg
50-100 mg/kg
IM
IM
SC, IP
  45
41
36
for light sedation
for immobilization
Ketamine/Acepromazine 75/2.5 mg/kg IM   41  
Ketamine/Xylazine 75-95/5 mg/kg
50/5 mg/kg
IM, IP
SC, IP
  45
36
 
Ketamine/Medetomidine 75/0.5 mg/kg IP   41 not for major surgical procedure
Telazol 20-40 mg/kg IM   45  
Pentobarbital 35-45 mg/kg IP   45, 41  
Propofol 7.5-10 mg/kg IV   45, 41  
Isoflurane To effect Inhalation      
           
OPIOIDS          
Buprenorphine 0.01-0.05 mg/kg  SC q. 8-12 hrs 45  
           
NON-OPIOIDS          
Carprofen 5 mg/kg SC, PO BID 36  
Ketoprofen 5 mg/kg SC, IM, PO SID 45  
Meloxicam 1-2 mg/kg SC, PO BID 45  
           
ANESTHETIC ANTAGONIST          
Naloxone 0.01-0.1 mg/kg
2.1 mg/kg
SC, IP, IV
IP
  41, 45
41
 
Yohimbine 0.1-1 mg/kg IV   45  
Atipamezole 1 mg/kg IP, SC   45, 41

 

Mouse Formulary

  DOSE ROUTE FREQUENCY REFERENCE NOTES
           
Anesthesia          
Isoflorane 2-3%
3-5%
Inhalation
Induction
As needed
As needed
40
40
 
Ketamine/Xylazine/Acepromaine 50-100(K) + 5-15(X) + 0.5-2(A) mg/kg in the same syringe IP As needed 56  
Ketamine/Xylazine 50-100(K) + 5-15(X) IP As needed 40  
Ketamine/Dexmedetomidine 50-75(K) + 0.25-0.5(D) IP As needed 15  
Ketamine/Midazolam 50-100(K) + 4-5(M) IP As needed 15  
Pentobarbital 40-60 mg/kg IP As needed 40  
           
ANALGESIA          
Buprenorphine 0.05-0.1 mg/kg SC q. 6-12 hrs 40  
Carprofen 5-10 mg/kg SC, PO q. 12-24 hrs 56  
Meloxicam 5-10 mg/kg PO, IM, SC q. 12-24 hrs 39

 

Hamster Formulary

  DOSE ROUTE FREQUENCY REFERENCE NOTES
           
PREMEDICATION          
Atropine 0.04 mg/kg IM   45  
Glycopyrolate 0.01-0.02 mg/kg SC   45  
Acepromazine 0.5-1 mg/kg SC, IM, IV   45  
Diazepam 3-5 mg/kg SC, IP     as an adjunct to anesthesia
Midazolam 1-2 mg/kg SC, IP      
           
ANESTHETICS          
Ketamine 20-40 mg/kg SC, IM   45 light sedation, heavy sedation at higher doses with marked individual variation
Ketamine/Xylazine 80/5 mg/kg SC, IP   45  
Ketamine/Medetomidine 75/1 SC, IP   45  
Telazol/Xylazine 30/10 mg/kg IP   45  
Pentobarbital 50-90 mg/kg IP   45 dilute 1:10 in sterile water
Avertin 250-300 mg/kg IP     1.25% solution: must be made fresh at each use
Isoflurane, Halothane To effect Inhalation      
Medetomidine 0.1-0.5 mg/kg SC, IP   39, 45  
           
OPIOIDS          
Morphine 2-5 mg/kg SC q. 2-4 hr 45  
Buprenorphine 0.01-0.5 mg/kg  SC q. 8-12 hrs 45  
Oxymorphone 0.2-0.5 mg/kg SC, IM q. 6-12 hrs 45  
Butorphanol 1-5 mg/kg SC q. 4 hrs 45  
           
NON-OPIOIDS          
Carprofen 5 mg/kg SC, PO q. 24 hrs 45  
Ketoprofen 5 mg/kg SC q. 24 hrs 36  
Meloxicam 1-2 mg/kg SC, PO q. 12 hrs 45  
Flunixin 2.5 mg/kg SC, IM q. 12-24 hrs 45

Gerbil Formulary

  DOSE ROUTE FREQUENCY REFERENCE NOTES
           
PREMEDICATION          
Atropine 0.04 mg/kg IM   45  
Glycopyrolate 0.01-0.02 mg/kg SC      
Acepromazine 0.5-2.5 mg/kg SC, IM, IV   36 as an adjunct to anesthesia, may precipitate seizures
Diazepam 2-5 mg/kg SC, IP     as an adjunct to anesthesia
Midazolam 2-5 mg/kg SC, IP      
           
ANESTHETICS          
Ketamine 20-40 mg/kg SC, IM   36 best given with a sedative
Ketamine/Xylazine 50/2 mg/kg SC, IP   36  
Ketamine/Medetomidine 75/0.5 SC, IP   39  
Ketamine/Xylazine/Acepromazine 50/2/0.5 SC, IP      
Telazol 50-80 mg/kg SC, IP   36  
Telazol/Xylazine 20/10 mg/kg IP   45  
Pentobarbital 50-90 mg/kg IP     dilute 1:10 in sterile water
Propofol 3-5 mg IV   45 in prairie dogs
Avertin 250-300 mg/kg IP     1.25% solution: must be made fresh at each use
Isoflurane, Halothane To effect Inhalation      
           
OPIOIDS          
Morphine 2-5 mg/kg SC q. 2-4 hr 13  
Buprenorphine 0.1-0.2 mg/kg  SC q. 6-12 hrs 13  
Oxymorphone 0.15-0.5 mg/kg SC, IM q. 6-12 hrs 45  
Butorphanol 1-5 mg/kg SC q. 6-12 hrs 13  
           
NON-OPIOIDS          
Aspirin 120 mg/kg PO q. 4 hrs 13  
Carprofen 5 mg/kg SC, PO q. 12 hrs 36  
Ketoprofen 2-5 mg/kg SC q. 24 hrs 36  
Meloxicam 1-2 mg/kg SC, PO q. 12 hrs 36  
Flunixin 2.5 mg/kg SC, IM q. 12-24 hrs 13  
Ibuprofen 7.5 mg/kg PO q. 4 hrs 13  
Acetaminophen 300 mg/kg PO q. 4 hrs 13  
Medetomidine 0.1-0.5 mg/kg SC, IP   39, 45  
           
ANESTHETIC ANTAGONIST          
Naloxone 0.01-0.1 mg/kg SC, IP, IV     reverses opioids
Yohimbine 0.1-0.15 mg/kg IV     reverses xylazine
Atipamezole 1 mg/kg IV     reverses medetomidine

 

Reptile Formulary

  DOSE ROUTE FREQUENCY REFERENCE NOTES
           
ANESTHETICS          
Ketamine 5-20 mg/kg IM, IV   39 lizards
Pentobarbital 22-30 mg/kg IM   38 lizards
Telazol 2-6 mg/kg IM, IV   39 lizards
Isoflurane To effect Inhalation     may be prolonged due to breath holding
           
OPIOIDS          
Buprenorphine 0.02-0.2 mg/kg  IM q. 4-6 hrs 39  
Butorphanol 0.4-2.0 mg/kg IM, IV, SC q. 12-24 hrs 39  
           
NON-OPIODS          
Carprofen 1-4 mg/kg SC, IM q. 24 hrs 39  
Flunixin 0.5-2 mg/kg IM q. 12-24 hrs 39 use maximum of 3 days
Ketoprofen 2 mg/kg SC, IM q. 24 hrs 39  
Meloxicam 0.1-0.2 mg/kg PO q. 24 hrs 39  

 

Amphibian Formulary

  DOSE ROUTE FREQUENCY REFERENCE NOTES
           
ANESTHETICS          
MS-222 1-3 g/L Immersion   36 no analgesic properties after recovery
Pentobarbital 40-50 mg/kg Dorsal lymph sac   36  
Ketamine 50-150 mg/kg SC, IM   36 no analgesic properties after recovery
Isoflurane 0.025-0.035 ml/g Topical   36 mixed by combining 3 ml isoflurane with 1.5 ml of sterile water and 3.5 ml of KY Jelly
Eugenol 350 ul/L Immersion   52 Xenopus laevis-immersion differences based on size of animal
           
OPIOIDS          
Morphine 30-100 mg  Dorsal lymph sac   36  
Butorphanol 25 mg/kg Intracoelomic q. 8-12 hrs    
Buprenorphine 75 mg/kg Dorsal lymph sac q. 4-6 hrs 36  
           
NON-OPIOIDS          
Benzocaine 50 mg/L (larvae)
200-300 mg/L
Immersion
Bath to effect
  45
45
dissolve in ethanol first
frogs, salamanders/dissolve in ethanol first
Dexmedetomidine 0.6 ug/g Systemic   51  

 

Fish Formulary

  DOSE ROUTE FREQUENCY REFERENCE NOTES
           
ANESTHETICS          
Ketamine 66-88 mg/kg IM   45, 50 Immobilization for short procedures; complete recovery can take > 1 hr
MS-222 15-330 mg/L Immersion   49  
Propofol 3.5-7.5 mg/kg IV   39 Can cause respiratory depression and bradycardia
           
OPIOIDS          
Morphine 5 mg/kg IM   39  
Butorphanol 0.1-0.4 mg/kg IM SID 36  
           
NON-OPIOIDS          
Carprofen 2-4 mg/kg IM q. 72-96 hrs 36  
Flunixin 0.25-0.5 mg/kg IM q. 72-96 hrs 36  
Ketoprofen 2 mg/kg IM   36  
Meloxicam 0.1-0.2 mg/kg IM q. 24-48 hrs 36

 

Chicken Formulary

  DOSE ROUTE FREQUENCY REFERENCE NOTES
           
PREMEDICATION          
Atropine 0.01-0.02 mg/kg SC, IV, IM   45  
Glycopyrolate 0.01 mg/kg IM, IV   45  
Acepromazine 0.25-0.5 mg/kg IM   45  
           
ANESTHETICS          
Ketamine 20-50 mg/kg SC, IM, IV   47  
Ketamine/Diazepam 25/1-2 mg/kg
75 mg/kg Ketamine IV and 2.5 mg/kg Diazepam
IM
IM
  47  
Ketamine/Midazolam 25/0.2 mg/kg IM   45  
Ketamine/Xylazine 4.4/2.2 mg/kg IV   47  
Telazol 5-10mg/kg IM   47  
Propofol 4.5-9.7 mg/kg IV   47  
Isoflurane To effect Inhalation   39  
           
OPIOIDS          
Buprenorphine 0.05-1 mg/kg
0.01-0.05 mg/kg
IA
IM
  45
48
No effect on pain behavior in chickens
Butorphanol 1-4 mg/kg IM q. 6-12 hrs; don't exceed q.4 hrs 45  
           
NON-OPIOIDS          
Xylazine 1-2.2 mg/kg IM, IV   45  
Flunixin 1-10 mg/kg IM, IV SID 47, 48  
Carprofen 2-4 mg/kg PO, SC BID 36  
Meloxicam 0.5 mg/kg PO SID 45  
Ketoprofen 5-10 mg/kg IM   47  
           
ANESTHETIC ANTAGONIST          
Naloxone 2 mg/kg IV q. 14-21 hrs 45, 48  
Yohimbine 0.1 mg/kg IM   47  
Atipamezole 250-380 ug/kg IM   47  

 

Swine Formulary

  DOSE ROUTE FREQUENCY REFERENCE NOTES
           
PREMEDICATION          
Atropine 0.05 mg/kg
0.02 mg/kg
IM
IV
  46
46
 
Glycopyrolate 0.004-0.01 IM, SC   46  
Acepromazine 0.11-1.1 mg/kg SC, IM, IV   36 Used as an adjunct to anesthesia
           
ANESTHETICS          
Ketamine 11-33 mg/kg IM   46 Not typically given as a sole agent in swine
Ketamine/Xylazine 20/2 mg/kg IM, SC   46  
Ketamine/Diazepam 20/2 mg/kg IM, SC   46  
Ketamine/Midazolam 33 mg/kg/500 ug/kg IM, SC   46  
Ketamine/Acepromazine 33/1.1 mg/kg IM   46  
Telazol 2-8.8 mg/kg IM   46  
Telazol/Xylazine 4.4/2.2 mg/kg IM   46 reconstitute telazole with 2.5 ml xylazine (100 mg/ml) + 2.5 ml sterlie saline; administer at 2.2 mg/kg IM based on 50 mg/ml
Propofol 0.82-1.66 mg/kg IV   39 Used for induction and followed by incremental IV boluses
Propofol/Fentanyl 0.5 mg / 1.6 mcg /kg/min IV (CRI)      
Isoflurane To effect Inhalation      
           
OPIOIDS          
Morphine 2.2 mg/kg SC/IM q. 4-6 hrs 46 up to 20 mg total dose. Can cause excitement. Has a short half-life
Buprenorphine 0.01-0.05 mg/kg  IM, SC BID/TID 39, 46  
  0.005-0.01 mg/kg IM, SC BID/TID 41  
Butorphanol 0.1-0.3 mg/kg IM q. 4 hrs 39  
Oxymorphone 0.15 mg/kg IM, SC q. 4 hrs (IM), BID/TID 39  
           
NON-OPIOIDS          
Xylazine 2-4 mg/kg IM      
Medetomidine 0.2 mg/kg IM      
Aspirin 10-20 mg/kg PO q. 4 hrs 39  
Flunixin 1-4 mg/kg SC/IM q. 12-24 hrs 39, 46  
Phenylbutazone 10-20 mg/kg PO BID 39  
Carprofen 2-4 mg/kg PO, SC PO (BID); SC (SID) 46  
Meloxicam 0.4 mg/kg SC SID 39  
           
LOCAL ANESTHETICS          
Bupivacaine up to 2 mg/kg     25 intercostal for thoracotomy pain
Morphine 0.1 mg/kg Epidural   46 lumosacral
           
ANESTHETIC ANTAGONIST          
Naloxone 0.5-2 mg/kg IV   39, 46 reverses opioids
Nalbuphine 1-2 mg/kg IV, IM     partial reversal of opioids
Yohimbine 1 mg/kg IV   46 reverses xylazine
Atipamezole 0.24-1 mg/kg IV, IM, SC   46 reverses medetomidine

 

Primate Formulary

  DOSE ROUTE FREQUENCY REFERENCE NOTES
           
PREMEDICATION          
Atropine 0.04 mg/kg IM Once prior to inhalant anesthesia 54  
           
ANESTHESIA          
Ketamine 5-30 mg/kg IM   54  
Dexmedetomidine 0.0075-0.15 mg/kg IM   54 Reverse with Atipamazole at volume equal to that of dexmedetomidine administered
Isoflurane 0.5-3% Inhalation   54  
           
ANALGESIA          
Oxymorphone 0.15 mg/kg IM TID 54  
Buprenorphine 0.01-0.03 IM BID-TID 54  
Ketoprofen 1-2 mg/kg IM SID 54  

 

Small Ruminants

  DOSE ROUTE FREQUENCY REFERENCE NOTES
           
PREMEDICATION          
Acepromazine 0.05-0.1 mg/kg IM   40 as an adjunct to anesthesia
Diazepam 0.25 mg/kg IV     as an adjunct to anesthesia
  0.55-1.1 mg/kg IM   40  
           
ANESTHETICS          
Ketamine 10 mg/kg IV   36 best given with a sedative
Telazol 2-4 mg/kg IM   53  
Propofol 4-6 mg/kg-sheep IV   53  
Isoflurane To effect Inhalation      
           
OPIOIDS          
Morphine up to 10 mg total IM   1a  
Buprenorphine 0.005 mg/kg  IM q. 12 hrs 1a Goats
  0.005 - 0.01 mg/kg IM q. 4-6 hrs 16 Sheep
  0.006 mg/kg IV q. 4 hrs 22 analgesia onset up to 45 min., lasted 3.5 hrs, excitement seen with IV route of administration
Butorphanol 0.5 mg/kg SC   9 lasted 120 min. (sheep)
  0.05-0.2 mg/kg IV     analgesia lasted 1-2 hrs, depending on dose, excitement at higher doses, do not exceed 0.2 mg/kg IV (23)
           
NON-OPIOIDS          
Xylazine 0.05-0.1 mg/kg IM   40 use with extreme caution, not recommended
           
LOCAL ANESTHETICS          
Lidocaine 0.5-1.0 % Local   27 maximum safe total dose 6 mg/kg
Mepivacaine 0.5-1.0 % Local   27 maximum safe total dose 6 mg/kg
Bupivacaine 0.25 % Local   27 maximum safe total dose 2 mg/kg
           
ANESTHETIC          
Naloxone 0.015-0.04 mg/kg SC, IP, IV     reverses opioids
Nalbuphine 1 mg/kg IV, IM     partial reversal of opioids
Yohimbine 0.125-0.22 mg/kg
0.125 mg/kg-goat
IV
IV
  53
53
reverses xylazine
Atipamezole 0.2 mg/kg IV   53 reverses dexmedetomidine