Revised on
11/20/15 02:32pm

Confined Space Entry Program Employee Guide

Contact information

 Appendices (Adobe Acrobate PDF format)

  1. UCD Confined Space Entry Log
  2. UCD Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit
  3. "Is It Safe To Enter" Flowchart
  4. UCD Confined Space - Contractor Check Sheet
 

I. Introduction

Californians die in confined space accidents every year. Not only is the original victim at high risk, but 60 percent of the fatalities are would-be rescuers who enter the space attempting to retrieve the fallen individual(s), only to be overcome by the hazardous atmosphere and perish themselves.

UC Davis (UCD) maintenance and telecommunication employees entering confined spaces on campus may encounter extremely hazardous atmospheric conditions and/or access difficulties, which could become life threatening. Such locations include sewers, wet-wells, tanks, boilers, crawl spaces, acid pits, vaults, storm drains, pipelines, bins, tubs, ducts and vessels that must be entered for repairs, inspection and maintenance. Insufficient ventilation may allow for the accumulation of toxic or flammable gases or the critical depletion of oxygen necessary to sustain life. Limited access into and out of these spaces also greatly hampers rescue operations.

The California Occupational Safety and Health Administration (Cal-OSHA) has developed special confined space regulations. These regulations are contained in the California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Sections 5156-58 of the General Industry Safety Orders and Section 8616 of the Telecommunication Safety Orders. Environmental Health & Safety (EH&S) developed this guide to provide UCD employees with critical information about these regulations and to ensure the safety of employees engaged in confined space operations.

II. UC Davis Confined Space Policy

EH&S coordinates the campus Confined Space Entry Program. This responsibility entails providing technical consultation and guidance for testing and monitoring confined space environments, controlling potential hazards in confined spaces (such as ignition sources, electrical and machinery lockout, purging and temporary ventilation), providing employee training about potential hazards, and cooperating with the campus Fire Department in rescue procedures. Testing and training requirements may be delegated to other departments that have EH&S-approved confined space entry programs and required instrumentation (for more information, refer to UCD Policy & Procedure Manual 290-86).

III. Definition

Cal-OSHA defines a confined space as a space that has the three following characteristics:

  • Is large enough and configured such that an employee can enter and perform work;·
  • Has limited openings for entry and exit; and
  • Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.

A confined space is further defined as a space that meets both of the following conditions:

  • Existing ventilation is insufficient to remove dangerous air contaminants and/or correct oxygen deficiency; and
  • Access to or exit from the space is difficult.

IV. Hazards In Confined Spaces

There are two primary hazards within confined spaces: atmospheric hazards and physical hazards.  Atmospheric refers to problems with the air in a space, while physical refers to problems caused by equipment or by other dangerous conditions. It is critical to identify all the hazards in a confined space and determine how they impact the health and safety of workers entering them.

Atmospheric Hazards

The inefficient or nonexistent ventilation of a confined space can cause the atmosphere in the space to become life threatening. Processes of biological activity, decomposition of natural materials, oxidation, percolation of vapors and structural leaks can cause the production and accumulation of toxic and/or flammable gases. Available oxygen levels may become seriously depleted or displaced through these processes. When the atmosphere becomes contaminated with harmful gases or depleted of oxygen, the exposed worker may not immediately feel the effects. A false feeling of euphoria or well being is a common side effect to such exposure. A number of these toxic gases have no odor or color detectable by the body's senses. Many who die in confined space accidents simply slip into unconsciousness quietly, never realizing what is happening and never to reawaken.

One cardinal rule prevails in working in confined spaces: Never trust your senses. Only through using appropriate monitoring instruments capable of analyzing atmospheric gases can employees verify that the space is safe to enter.

The following section discusses the harmful effects of exposure to varying toxic gases and oxygen levels commonly found in confined space atmospheres.

Oxygen Depletion - Life ceases quickly without enough oxygen. Common sources of oxygen depletion in confined spaces include aerobic bacterial growth, oxidation/rusting of metals, combustion, and displacement by other gases. Oxygen comprises only a small percentage (20.9 percent) of the air we breathe. When levels of oxygen are reduced below 19.5 percent (the minimum acceptable level), serious health problems begin to occur very quickly. The following provides an overview of those effects at various oxygen levels:

  • 20.9-23.5 percent: Maximum permissible oxygen level. No effect.

  • 20.9 percent: Percentage of oxygen found in normal air. No effect.

  • 19.5 percent: Minimum permissible oxygen level. No effect.

  • 15-19 percent: Decreased ability to work strenuously. May impair coordination and may induce early symptoms with individuals that have coronary, pulmonary, or circulatory problems.

  • 12-15 percent: Respiration and pulse increase; impaired coordination, perception, and judgment occurs.

  • 10-12 percent: Respiration further increases in rate and depth; poor judgment and bluish lips occur.

  • 8-10 percent: Symptoms include mental failure, fainting, unconsciousness, an ash-colored-face, blue lips, nausea, and vomiting.

  • 6-8 percent: 8 minutes - 100 percent fatal; 6 minutes - 50 percent fatal; 4-5 minutes - recovery with treatment.

  • 4-6 percent: Coma in 40 seconds, convulsions, respiration ceases - death.

Oxygen within a space may be depleted through the displacement of other gasses. Some gases are heavier than air and move downward; others, being lighter than air travel upward, displacing the available oxygen as they fill the space.

Toxic Gases - There are many different types of toxic gases that can be found in confined spaces. Their sources and physical characteristics vary, but they all share one common thread - potential harm to individuals who enter a hazardous atmosphere in enclosed areas.
There are two categories of toxic gases: irritants and asphyxiates.

  • Irritants - Many gases existing in low concentrations in the air are irritating to the body's respiratory and nervous systems. When inhaled, they cause the mucous linings of the lungs and sinuses to swell, sometimes so severely that the respiratory tract closes, causing strangulation. Except under extreme conditions, the body normally recovers after exposure to toxic gases has been stopped. In higher concentrations, irritants can become asphyxiating gases.
  • Asphyxiates - An asphyxiate is any gas that, when present in a high enough concentration, causes displacement of oxygen in the body.
    • Carbon monoxide is one of the most common asphyxiates. Produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon fuels, carbon monoxide kills by chemically combining with the hemoglobin in red blood cells. This greatly reduces the ability of the blood to carry oxygen to body tissues and brain cells.

CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE EFFECTS

35 ppm:

Permissible Exposure Limit during an eight-hour shift.

500 ppm:

Slight headache.

1000 ppm:

Confusion, nausea, discomfort.

2000 ppm:

Tendency to stagger.

2500 ppm:

Unconsciousness after a 30-minute exposure.

4000 ppm:

Fatal in less than one hour.

  • Hydrogen sulfide is even more toxic than carbon monoxide. It is produced through the decay of organisms and natural materials.  This colorless gas has a characteristic rotten egg odor at first; however, within a short time the gas paralyzes the olfactory nerve, which controls the sense of smell. A worker may be lulled into a false sense of security because he/she no longer smells the substance, yet it is causing serious bodily harm (higher concentrations).

HYDROGEN SULFIDE EXPOSURE EFFECTS

10 ppm:

Permissible Exposure Limit during an eight-hour period.

50-100 ppm:

Mild eye and respiratory irritation.

200-300 ppm:

Marked increase in eye and lung irritation.

500-700 ppm:

Unconsciousness or death after a 30-minute exposure.

1000 or more ppm:

Death within minutes.

Flammable Gases

Many of the gases routinely found in confined spaces are flammable or combustible under the right combination of conditions. These gases include hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, acetylene, and methane. When fuel, oxygen, and an ignition source are present at the same time and in the correct proportions, a serious explosion or fire can result. If a combustible gas and air are trapped in a confined space, only a source of ignition is needed to cause an explosion. Welding, sparking tools, smoking, or static electricity can easily provide an ignition source.
The lowest concentration (air-fuel mixture) at which a gas can ignite is called its Lower Explosive Limit (LEL). Concentrations below this level are too lean to burn. The highest concentration that can be ignited is its Upper Explosive Limit (UEL). Above that concentration, the mixture is too rich to burn. A gas is flammable in concentrations between its LEL and UEL.

Monitoring instruments analyze air samples and alarm at a predetermined concentration level, usually 10 percent of the LEL. The worker is then provided with advance warning concerning the potential hazard. Any concentration of flammable gas is reason for concern in a confined space.

Gas-Air Mixture Chart

Overly rich mixtures can collect in an area and reach combustible concentrations when fresh air is introduced, quickly changing its proportions to levels between the LEL and UEL. Confined space atmospheres containing an enriched oxygen level above 23.5 percent increase the flammability ranges of many gases as well as support violent reactions when ignition occurs. Oils and grease may unexpectedly burst into flames under such atmospheric conditions.

Physical Hazards

Employees working in confined spaces may face the following physical hazards:

  • The possibility of drowning or being trapped by flooding water while working in a storm sewer or wet-well.

  • Pipes, valves, and lines carrying harmful substances such as steam, natural gas, and electricity that can rupture while being worked on or activated if not locked out.

  • Loud noises reverberating from the use of hammers or hydraulic equipment.

  • Exposure to temperature extremes during work activities.

  • Slips and falls on wet or damaged walking or climbing surfaces.

  • Exposure to corrosive substances that could irritate unprotected skin.

  • Exposure to rodents, vermin, and other pests living in the area.

  • Poor or inadequate lighting.

  • Accidental activation of hazardous equipment while it is being repaired.

Moving equipment or parts and energized or pressured systems can be dangerous as well. Examples include shafts, belts, conveyors, mixers, rotors, and compressing devices. Entrapment hazards in a confined space include inwardly converging walls or floors that slope downward and taper to a smaller cross-section, such as air plenums. An engulfment hazard is any liquid or loose, finely divided solid material such as sand or grain that could bury, surround, suffocate, or drown an entrant.

 

V. Instrumentation

It is mandatory that an atmospheric monitoring instrument be used before and continuously during any confined space entry. There are several types of atmospheric monitoring instruments used by various campus divisions. These monitors continually sample the atmosphere to which the worker is being exposed. Liquid crystal digital screens and audible alarms on these monitors are preset to activate when high contaminant levels are sensed. Each instrument monitors air samples in four categories simultaneously:

  • Percent of available oxygen;
  • Percent of flammable gases;
  • Presence of hydrogen sulfide; and
  • Presence of carbon monoxide.

Other instruments used at UCD may not be capable of continuous monitoring; rather, they are designed to monitor a single sample of drawn air for certain contaminants. These older models are larger, not worn on the employee's belt and must be activated each time a new sample is needed. These monitors may or may not be able to analyze the sample for more than one type of contaminant at once. At a minimum, every employee performing atmospheric monitoring should be able to retrieve sampling information about the oxygen level as well as the presence of both toxic and flammable gases. This may be possible only by using several different instruments.
Regardless of the type of instrument being used, each requires periodic maintenance and calibration. Specific manufacturer's instructions must be followed to ensure each instrument provides reliable service. Replacement parts, including extended probes and carrying cases, should be purchased directly from the manufacturer or manufacturer's representative.
Each of these monitors is a highly sophisticated scientific instrument that must be carefully handled and maintained in order to provide critical, lifesaving information to the user. These instruments are capable of detecting hazardous atmospheric conditions far beyond that of human senses.

VI. Entry Logs and Permits

Most confined space operations at UCD facilities will only require the use of the Confined Space Entry Log (Entry Log) form (Appendix A). Confined spaces with special hazards, as listed in the Section XIII - Identifying Confined Spaces at UCD, are considered permit required confined spaces and require the Permit-Required Confined Space Entry Permit (Permit) form (Appendix B). The purpose of the Entry Log or Permit is to make sure all necessary precautions are taken before entry is made.
Copies of the Entry Log and Permit are available through EH&S and the safety coordinator's office at O&M.
All Entry Logs and Permits are to be kept at the job site until the operation is completed.
All measurement data from the sampling activities are to be recorded on the Entry Log or Permit. All Entry Logs and Permits are to be signed and kept in departmental records for three years. Such records must be available for periodic inspection by applicable employees, their representatives, EH&S staff, and Cal-OSHA inspectors.

VII. Pre-entry Procedures

The following four steps must be taken before entering any known or suspected confined space on campus:
STEP 1 - Determine Whether an Entry Log or Permit is Required

  • Before entering any known or suspected confined space, employees may refer to the "Is It Safe To Enter" flow chart (Appendix C). The flow chart is designed to assist in determining whether an Entry Log or Permit is required to enter a space.
  • If hazards are present, a Permit must be completed. The UCD Fire Department must be notified and a UCD departmental supervisor's written approval must be obtained prior to entering the space.

STEP 2 - Organize the Equipment

Before entering a confined space, obtain the following items:

  • An Entry Log or Permit;
  • Air monitoring equipment (check the battery and calibration status.);
  • Ventilation equipment and its power supply, if applicable;
  • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE);
  • Standby personnel and communication equipment;
  • Appropriate barricades; and
  • Fall protection and retrieval equipment, if applicable.

STEP 3 - Securing the Environment

  • Lock Out/Tag Out (LOTO) - All LOTO procedures will be followed before entering a confined space.
  • Wet-Wells - Lock valves or blind lock pipes if possible. A harness and a winch retrieval system are mandatory.
  • Steam Boilers - Before employees enter one of a battery of boilers or a boiler connected to another source of steam, the valve connection to the steam header or source must be closed and blinded, or there must be two closed valves with an open bleeder between them.
    Blow-down valves and other valves on lines through which hot water or steam might accidentally flow back to the boiler must be closed, locked out, and tagged out. The employee entering the boiler must keep the key. This is not necessary if the lines are blinded.
  • Fire Boxes, Flues and Combustion Chambers - Before entering a confined space, make sure the pilot light, the fuel, and steam lines have been blinded and disconnected or have two closed block valves with an open bleeder between them.
  • Water Tanks - Valves that could admit water must be closed, locked out, and tagged out. The employee entering the space must keep the key.
  • Spaces with Potentially Harmful Electrical Equipment - This equipment must be disconnected with the disconnect switch, then locked out and tagged out. The employee entering the space must keep the key.
  • Spaces with Fire Suppression Systems That Use Oxygen-Displacing Gas - The system must be deactivated before entry.
  • Spaces Pedestrians Could Fall Into - Set up appropriate barricades in all pedestrian-accessible areas.
  • Spaces Where Employees Could Fall - Use a harness and winch setup to prevent falls.

STEP 4 - Initial Monitoring

Use an appropriate meter (i.e. the GASTEC Genesis) that has been recently field calibrated with all sensors operating. There are meters available to O&M personnel at the Mechanical Safety Coordinator's office.

  • Pre-test air monitors - Activate the instrument, and allow it to warm up, checking the instrument's operation condition and battery charge level.
  • Air monitor probe use - While the air-monitoring instrument is running, remove the protective boot and attach the probe. Insert the probe into the weep hole, or if there is no weep hole, open the manhole or cover enough to insert the probe. If instrument readings are within acceptable limits, perform level testing starting at the bottom of the confined space working upward every 4 feet until all of the vertical space has been tested. Record your finding on the Entry Log or Permit. Where interconnecting spaces are blinded off, each space must be monitored separately.

If the instrument alarms or detects any unacceptable levels of toxic gases, STOP. Do not enter the space. Call your supervisor, the Safety Coordinator, or EH&S immediately.

Correct Example of Level Air Monitoring Using the Probe Attachment

Correct Example of Level Air Monitoring Using the Probe Attachment

  1. Insert the probe into the weep hole, or if there is no weep hole, open the manhole enough to insert the probe (1).
  2. If instrument readings are within acceptable limits, the manhole cover may be removed.
  3. Before entering the confined space, perform level testing starting at the bottom of the confined space working upward every 4 feet until all of the vertical space has been tested (2-6).
  • Use of Personal Air Monitors - While the air monitor is still running, remove the probe and attach the protective boot and carry case. The instrument is to remain running and in the confined space with the entrant at all times.

 

VIII. Entry Procedures

Once the initial tests are completed and the atmosphere has been determined to be within acceptable limits, visually inspect the area for any additional hazards. If no other hazards are observable, work may proceed using the following procedures.
Log Entry (Non-Permit Required Confined Space)

  • A minimum of two employees is required for a non-permit required confined space entry. One employee will remain outside of the space to be available in case of an emergency. This individual must be in direct communication with the entrant as well as be able to contact emergency response personnel.

  • Portable blowers may be used to purge stagnant air or to provide comfort ventilation during confined space work. The blower intake must be located outside of the confined space and away from any operating internal combustion engine to ensure that fresh air is being supplied. The blower should be activated before an employee enters.

  • Entrants must have an air-monitoring instrument on and with them at all times while in the confined space.

If at any time atmospheric conditions change and the monitor indicates (alarms) the presence of toxic or flammable gases or a change in oxygen level, employees are to evacuate the space at once. Call your supervisor, the Safety Coordinator, or EH&S immediately.

Permit Entry (Permit-Required Confined Space)

  • A minimum of two, and preferably three employees is required for a permit-required confined space entry. The entry supervisor may or may not be present at the immediate entry site. The attendant(s) will remain outside the space to be available in case of an emergency. One individual must be first aid and CPR trained, must maintain direct communication with the entrant at all times, and must be able to contact emergency response personnel.

At no time will the attendant or entry supervisor enter the permit-required confined space.

  • Portable blowers must be used during permit-required confined space work. The blower intake must be located outside of the confined space and away from any operating internal combustion engine to ensure that fresh air is being supplied. The blower must be activated before the employee enters the space.

  • All authorized entrants and rescuers must wear a full body harness and retrieval line, unless the retrieval equipment would increase the overall risk of the entry or would not contribute to the rescue operation.

  • Only approved lowering devices designed by the manufacturer for moving humans shall be used. The equipment must enable a rescuer to remove the injured employee from the space quickly without injuring the rescuer or further harming the victim.

  • Entrants must have air-monitoring instruments on and with them at all times while in the confined space.

If at any time atmospheric conditions change and the monitor indicates (alarms) the presence of toxic or flammable gases or a change in oxygen level, employees are to evacuate the space at once. Call your supervisor, the Safety Coordinator, or EH&S immediately.

IX. Other Operations with Confined Spaces

Hot Work
"Hot Work" includes any operation capable of providing an ignition source. Examples include welding, torch work, electric tools with open brushes, sanders, grinders or any device that produces sparks. Special precautionary measures can be taken to reduce the risk of fire or explosion including improving ventilation, inspecting for frayed electrical wires, implementing a fire-suppression system or using low-voltage, non sparking tools.
Prior to any Hot Work on campus, a Hot Work permit must be obtained from the UCD Fire Department.
Dangers Created by Work Procedures
Work performed within a confined space (such as welding, decreasing, painting, sanding, or using pesticides) may create a toxic atmosphere. Finely powered dust from combustible materials such as wood, metal, or grain can be fuel for a powerful explosion. Dust clouds can develop as a result of handling dusty materials or when solid materials are reduced to smaller particles from processes such as grinding, drilling or crushing. Airborne combustible dust at an explosive concentration will reduce vision to a distance of 5 feet or less. Caution must be used when performing tasks that could change the atmosphere in a confined space.
Lock Out/Tag Out (LOTO)
LOTO is the procedure for shutting off, securing or isolating equipment to prevent an undesirable release of hazardous energy during any servicing, maintenance or modification activity. LOTO procedures are mandatory and must be strictly followed by all employees working on equipment that may release hazardous forms of energy including, but not limited to, electrical, rotational, mechanical, chemical, hydraulic, or pneumatic energy.
Most LOTO injuries can be traced to the following causes:

  • Failing to stop equipment;

  • Failing to disconnect from the power source;

  • Failing to dissipate residual energy;

  • Accidentally restarting equipment; or

  • Failing to clear work areas before reactivation.

X. Emergency and Rescue Procedures

The UCD Fire Department will provide emergency rescue services.  UCD personnel, with the exception of the UCD Fire Department, will not perform emergency entry rescues under any circumstances. UCD personnel are currently not trained as emergency rescuers, nor do they have the required equipment to provide emergency rescues in confined spaces.

Employees working in confined spaces must only perform self-rescue and/or non-entry rescue procedures.

Self-rescue: Self-rescue is the preferred plan. The self-rescue plan provides entrants with the best chance of escaping a space when hazards are detected. Whenever authorized entrants recognize their own symptoms of exposure to dangerous atmosphere or detect a dangerous condition, entrants are still able to escape from the space unaided and as quickly as possible.

Non-entry rescue: Non-entry rescue is the next best approach when self-rescue is not possible. Non-entry rescue can be started right away and prevents additional personnel from being exposed to unidentified and/or uncontrolled confined space hazards. Usually, equipment and other rescue aids, such as a full body harness with a retrieval tripod, are used to remove endangered entrants.

Entry-rescue: In this procedure, emergency response personnel from the UCD Fire Department enter the space to retrieve the entrant or provide the victim with emergency assistance such as CPR, first aid, or air via SCBA or a supplied air respirator.

Emergency response personnel will need to know the following information:

  • The number of victims and the location of the emergency

  • How long the victim(s) have been exposed to the hazard or how long the victim(s) have been injured/down

  • The suspected cause of the accident

In addition, emergency response personnel will need to know all information on the Entry Log or Permit including:

  • Atmospheric test results

  • Isolation or LOTO procedures

  • Safety Data Sheets (SDS), if applicable

  • Hot Work, if applicable

  • Any other relevant information

XI. Employee Training

As directed by UCD's Hazard Communication Program, every employee working in confined spaces has a right to clearly understand the hazards and flammable contaminants they may encounter in any confined space entry. They also are entitled to information on methods by which they can protect themselves while working in such spaces.
It is the responsibility of department supervisors to ensure that appropriate training resources are made available to all employees before assigning confined space entry tasks. It is also the responsibility of department supervisors to ensure that each employee has available to him/her all protective equipment needed to conduct the job safely and that each individual clearly understands how to use such equipment correctly.
It is the responsibility of each employee engaged in confined space activities to follow all procedures and instructions outlined in this guide.
Employees should also receive training in confined space operations at least once per year. Programs may be presented by department supervisors, EH&S staff and/or qualified off-campus representatives. Additionally, all new employees assigned to work in confined spaces must receive this information as part of their initial orientation.

XII. Responsibilities

Employees
In addition to attending required initial and annual refresher classes on confined space entry before engaging in confined space work, employees are responsible for the following:

  • Informing their immediate supervisor before entering a confined space to perform work

  • Obtaining necessary air-monitoring instruments, safety equipment, Entry Logs or Permits, and any other related equipment before entering any confined space on campus

  • Checking all equipment before entering to ensure it is working properly, and informing the supervisor immediately if any equipment is found not to be working properly

  • Submitting completed Entry Logs and Permits to their supervisor, immediately after completing work

  • Following safety procedures as covered in this guide

Supervisors
Supervisors that have employees working in confined spaces are responsible for ensuring that each employee receives proper training, information about potential health hazards, personal protective equipment necessary to perform the task, air-monitoring instruments and any other equipment needed to work safely in a confined space. Other responsibilities include:

  • Ensuring that employees correctly fill out the Entry Log or Permit as well as reviewing and signing the permit-required confined space form before employees enter the space

  • Ensuring that all confined space Entry Logs and Permits are collected from employees and retained within the department for three years

  • Reviewing confined space entry/rescue programs annually for completeness

EH&S
EH&S is responsible for the following:

  • Assisting departments and employees in identifying confined space locations

  • Provide assistance reevaluating designated confined spaces, both Entry Log and Permit, as needed

  • Provide consultation services to ensure that all confined space work is being performed in compliance with federal, state, and local regulations as well as University policies and procedures

  • Maintain an inventory of UCD confined spaces

UCD Fire Department
The UCD Fire Department is responsible for the following:

  • Providing emergency entry-rescue services for all confined space operations on campus

  • Facilitate and coordinate annual training exercises for permit-required confined space rescues

XIII. Identifying Confined Spaces at UC Davis

Normal operational tasks in manholes, meter vaults, and valve boxes require the use of an Entry Log (Appendix A). Operations within the wet side of sewer lift stations, boilers, and fireboxes, or spaces requiring Hot Work, require a Permit (Appendix B).

All permit-required confined spaces will be posted. Posting of non-permit confined spaces is optional. Examples of permit-required confined space signs are as follows:

confined space signs

If you are asked to enter a space you believe may be hazardous to your health, please discuss with your supervisor and/or EH&S to determine whether it should be classified as a confined space.

XIV. Contractors

Contractors who enter confined spaces on campus must be notified of any known hazardous conditions, must have their own confined space program, and must know how to contact emergency rescue personnel on campus (the UCD Fire Department). Project managers must communicate this in writing to the contractor and verify the training and qualifications of those entering confined spaces. A checklist for contractors performing confined space work is provided in Appendix D.

XV. Closing

It is critical that all employees involved with confined space entries understand the potential hazards, exposures and risks involved when working in confined spaces. Because of the hazards associated with confined space work, workers' lives are at stake. Every entry is unique, so care, good judgment, and safety are always the first priority.

Special Acknowledgments and Thanks to:

  • Mike Fouquette, University of California, San Diego, EH&S Department,
  • Rosie Hall, University of California, Davis, Facilities O&M Department, and
  • Captain Kim Jester, University of California, Davis, Fire Department.